|The Chingiz khan|
Chinghez Khan was a minor nobleman who defeated all of his rivals to become to Great Khan (leader) of the Mongol tribes in 1196. Twenty years later, his armies had conquered much of the known world from the shores of China to Europe.
Chinghez did not try to invade India, as so many other central Asian leaders had done, until 1221 when the ruler of Ghazni, fleeing from the Mongols, took refuge in the Punjab. Chinghez chased him but met the armies of Iltutmish near Peshawar and returned to central Asia after an inconclusive battle. Six years later, Chinghez was dead, and by the end of the century, the Mongols were converted to Islam. Their threat, however, did not go away: in 1245 they invaded and captured Lahore, only to be defeated by Balban. Forty years later, they
seized Lahore again but were driven were driven out by Balban's son, Muhammad, who was unfortunately killed in the battle. Although they made repeated advances into the Sultanate, the Mongols were pushed back. They managed to reach Delhi once and even besieged it, but fled when Alauddin's army approached (1300).
For much of the 14th Century, there were no major Mongol attacks until after the death of Firoz Shah (1388), when a series of feeble sultans left the Sultanate open to invasion. Then the final and worst Mongol attack of all took place under Timur.